As I started this research and studying I didn’t really know what to expect as although I had my background knowledge from my personal interest in Roman and Greek History but had also started to understand that Roman Art had its roots in the Greek/Hellenic period and that many sculptures were copies of earlier ones rather than originals as I had previously thought. However my overall view of the Roman Art was one of imitation or borrowing earlier works and adding a new slant to them with a major change and development of portraiture. This portraiture no doubt had a major effect on art from thereon and I find some of the statues almost haunting in appearance as they subjects still often seem to have an air of authority (particularly in the cases of the emperors).
My other impression, and one that most people undeniably have, is of the Roman’s great architectural and engineering skills and this is where personal interest comes to the fore when combined with the development of concrete or more correctly the changes made so that it took longer to set and became harder. My own paternal grandfather was an engineer and considered one of the country’s leading experts in concrete during the 1940’s and onwards and his skills were such he was not sent abroad during World War II – now I wonder if he was inspired by the Roman’s with how they used the concrete to achieve such great architectural feats of engineering.
To understand the periods of this chapter I have come to understand that the Hellenistic period is that period of Classical art from the death of Alexander the Great to the emergence of Imperial Rome in 31 BC. However there is much mention too of the Republic of Rome which effectively emerged around 500 BC when the city of Rome itself was a mere collection of villages. As the republic expanded the constitution became a carefully balanced combination of democracy, monarchy and oligarchy and essentially the civilisation was ruled by the people and not a single person such as you find in tyrannical rule. However eventually Emperors emerged that ruled the whole civilisation and changed the status quo from a republic to an imperial power and this in turn brought about the downfall of the Roman Empire. The Hellenistic period covers the Republic period of Roman art – the Hellenes strongly influencing the art as the Republic expanded and absorbed their territories. To understand these periods is to understand art at its very foundations.
A point of note was that the Hellenistic period originally defined by linguistic significance which distinguished speakers of Greece from other cultures within the Hellenic empire – official language was a form of Greek known as KOINE which was in effect the Greek of the New Testament and became the language of art throughout half the civilised world. On this point it is interesting to realise just how much of our own language has Greek origins.
A sad foot note to this research has been the destruction of the temples and Roman ruins at Palmyra (World History of Art, p. 208) in August 2015 by modern day barbarians and the ongoing destruction of similar architectural and historical jewels of Syria and the Middle East – I make the comparison to the destruction of Roman by the Visigoths in the 5th Century AD. The day the photographs in our media were published about Palmyra was the very day that I read of its history – an entrance consisting of columns and a plinth still stand in monumental historical defiance that reaches down through the centuries.
POLITICAL, ECONOMIC OR SOCIAL FACTORS
- Wars with Persia and other countries by Alexander the Great that were depicted in sculpture.
- By 2nd Century BC Athens lost most of power and little more than a centre for culture and learning.
- During Hellenistic period cities built or rebuilt to pattern of Greek polis with buildings such as theatre, temples etc in each but conforming to Greek architectural orders and adorned with sculptures.
- Cities expanded into centres of wealth, trade, industry and learning and artistic activity.
- By end of 2nd Century BC Rome gained control of large part of Hellenistic world plus territories to north and west and additional expanded into Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, south of France and Spain. From this point they gained control of Greece in 148 BC and Pergamum in 131 BC with eventually Egypt in 1st Century BC (became a Roman province in 30 BC at time that Roman Empire changed from Republic to Imperial rule).
- Roman upper class absorbed Hellenistic culture.
- Mosaics found at Vesuvius used limited palette of the Greek painters of 5th and 4th Century BC and also Hellenistic in style – question for me therefore is whether a Greek artist was responsible for the mosaic due to expansion of travel during this time period as trade increased or whether these mosaics were merely influenced by the work of Greek painters?
- As the Roman Empire changed from a Republic to Imperial Empire with first emperors and the Pax Romana which was a unique period in history of 150 years of peace initiated by Augustus that enabled peace and stability across the whole Roman civilisation. This combined with the first Roman Law from which Western legal codes derived enabled the Romans to make what is considered rightly to be their finest contributions to Western civilisation.
- Urban renewal really started at the time of the disasters at Pompeii and Herculaneum and resulted in the single storey dwelling houses (domus) being torn down in favour of the ‘insulae’ which were the multi storied dwellings. In turn the rich were moving out to the countryside and building their great villas.
- Interiors of the insulae were not plain but in fact had paintings and mosaics in much the same way as the villas – the Romans liked to decorate their dwellings.
- Initial building programmes at end of Republic era were partly propaganda tools by various powerful men (including Julius Caesar) who made various bids of absolute power and then by those very first emperors. The bids for power resulted in 14 years of civil wars. Caesar planned a complete reorganisation of Rome and some buildings began during his time in 49-44 BC but it wasn’t until his adopted son (and great nephew) Octavius restored peace in 30 BC that the transformation really started to take place. Octavius became Augustus the first emperor in 27 AD and ruled until he died in AD 14. Marcus Agrippa who was Augustus right hand man sponsored the building of many of Rome’s new public buildings and aqueducts as well as a basilica and the first public baths – the latter is one of the most recognisable of Roman architectural features and at the time was open to people of all classes.
- Colosseum originally built as propaganda by Vespasian who was first emperor of Flavian family – came to power in AD 69 due to uprising against Nero (last of dynasty started with Augustus). The Colosseum had to built quickly and completed in under 10 years.
- Traditional beliefs start to give way in the 2nd Century AD to Eastern mystery cults and the fledgling Christian religion.
- Social demands affected the medium used for the copies of sculptures – some were reproduced in marble and to a different scale or reproduced in pairs and these copies were considered luxury ornaments.
- Portrait busts restricted by law to the patrician class and most surviving are in marble and bronze. Form of this portrait bust used prominently in the Imperial era – residue of beliefs that a likeness preserves the spirit.
- Visual propaganda seen also in invention of Roman triumphal arch – free standing and purely ornamental but heavily sculpted. Usually stood across a thoroughfare so seen by many people (Admiralty Arch in London or L’arc de Triomphe are more modern versions with the same messages of triumph). Could be built of concrete and faced with marble (like the Colosseum). Columns were of Composite order i.e. combined Corinthian and Ionic elements which was invented by Augustan architects.
- Use of script in sculpture used on both triumphal arches and commemorative columns extensively – Romans realised the artistic possibilities of what surmounts to be calligraphy – again used for political propaganda purposes.
- Cracks start to appear in Roman Imperial era before death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 AD and signified start of 3 centuries of declining Roman power – no obvious reflection in the arts though. Many of largest and most ornamental of Roman buildings are those of the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.
- In Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor Hellenistic architectural forms of this period seen in huge opulent buildings – reorganised from the Hellenistic style to the axial symmetry and logical sequences so favoured by Romans.
- Political and economic centres started to shift towards the East and decorations were very lavish. The ‘thermae’ baths were monumental in size but the ‘frigidarium’ of the Baths of Diocletian were still vaster in size and grandiose – even after conversion into a church the sheer size and opulence shows no sign of the declining empire.
- During the period of 50 years between the last of the Severans in 235 and advent of Diocletian in 284 there was huge political instability – 21 emperors reigned with an average of 3 years each. The senate no longer elected the emperors but each was proclaimed by the army – frequently an army of barbarian troops and some emperors were barbarians. This meant that there were also frequent attacks from outside the empire and a 10 mile wall was built around Rome under Aurelian (270-5) to try to keep out barbarians from the north who had invaded Italy – the empire was under threat but still city gates designed not just to repel warring factions but also to impress.
- Romans in 3rd Century AD wanted to evade oblivion – their beliefs changed and consequently they wanted to be remembered as being devoted to poetry or philosophy – Romans wanted to contemplate the realms of thought despite the disasters affecting the empire around them.
- People started to convert to Neoplatonism which was founded by Plotinus (204-70) who was the last great philosopher of ancient times – Plotinus religion based on mystical philosophy gained through his joining an expedition with Gordian III to Persia whereby he hoped to learn something of Oriental thought. Plotinus also had ideas derived from Plato and Aristotle but without the slightest interest in political theories or scientific writings. People also started to convert to Christianity at the same period.
- Reliefs on Arch of Constantine erected in Rome 313-15 seems to stand as testament to history of Hellenist and Roman art but the decoration is a mix of old and new incorporating new spiritual beliefs. Aft the erection the Edict of Milan proclaimed the tolerance of Christianity. The reliefs on the arch were of the Italic style (known on occasions as ‘plebian’ but patronized by the middle classes not the lower) but at the same time the simplicity and directness also have a consistency and thoughtfulness about them (shown by use of earlier sculptures on the arch of the emperors that Constantine wished to associate himself with – the good emperors of Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius and Trajan).
- Constantine himself built a ring of churches outside the Aurelian walls of Rome on the sites of martyrdom and eventually church building penetrated the city walls with the old pagan temples and shrines becoming their quarries.
CHANGES TO THE STATUS OR TRAINING OF ARTISTS
- During Hellenic period artists realised they were living in the aftermath of a great period which in turn showed in the ‘Classistic’ tendency and which Plato contended that works of art should be the absolute standard – effectively saying that art should be of the highest class of skill possible – my impression is that artists therefore strove for that absolute standard.
- Art became seen as ‘works of art’ created by individuals for individual patrons and hence art became collectable and famous artists were promoted – first histories of art were written by practising artists.
- Statuettes in metal and other media begun to be seen as works of art in own right in Hellenistic period.
- Artists taken for granted and treated with disdain whilst art was very collectable
- Taste for luxury which went against many beliefs.
- First female artists or professional female artists became known during Hellenistic period.
- Art collectors started to make their appearance around 1st Century BC but this did not raise the status of artists/painters as they were considered merely as labourers or workmen. As in Ancient Greece sculptors were no more regarded than painters or carpenters in Rome – artists were downgraded by the Romans in status.
- Architects were held in higher status than any other artist and should be skilled as well as being learned in mathematics, scientific thought, letters and philosophy amongst other things.
- Due to Plotinus the artistic ‘Idea’ changed from Plato’s rigid conception to one whereby the mind became the living vision of the artist – but it did not lead him to revalue the arts and in fact his view was more negative (World History of Art, p. 213). Plotinus answered spiritual needs of Romans but his influence easier to evaluate when Noeplatonism was absorbed into Christian theology. Sculpture of the late 3rd and early 4th centuries seemed to disregard earlier Classical Greek ideas of beauty but to what extent was consciously and to what extent caused by other factors such as Plotinus’s ideas is unknown. The status of the artists seemed unchanged and still of lowly views although the architects of the Roman Empire were exulted – seems at odds to me considering the reliance on sculptors by the architects.
- The work on the Arch of Constantine and the mishmash of old and new styles of sculpture gave new function and meaning from the architects choices and it meant that finally the work of art actually acquired greater importance than the work itself – the main purpose of art was the most important. Christian patrons would have wanted sarcophagi with meaning rather than form to be the foremost art depicted i.e. symbolic art that meant something to them and no doubt the sculptors of the Constantine Arch would have worked on these. This to me indicates the change in status again of the artists as the Christian era of art begins to form and take shape.
DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
- Portraiture – rarely practised by Greeks but increasingly important from 4th Century BC onwards and developed alongside sculptural techniques.
- Technically accomplished sculpture during Hellenistic period which also seen in mosaics and in metal work where sensitive handling of medium seen – also naturalistic style mastery.
- Bronze casting, chasing and reposse hammering – the latter two now known as embossing – developed to high level of skill.
- Wall paintings and mosaics – pictorial style developed in Hellenistic period (work of many artists from eastern Mediterranean) – geographically Italian rather than cultural.
- Some mosaics may have evolved from Hellenistic paintings.
- Figures in mosaics modelled with shading – style consistent with this period.
- Illusions created by painting – now known as trompe l’oeil effect.
- Perspective system devised for theatrical scenery possibly in Hellenist East but may have Italian origins too plus orthogonals or lines of perspective projection which slanted towards a central axis.
- Silver work, glass and onyx carving all developed in techniques – glass carving involved carving the outer surface of blown molten glass of 2 different colours which was incredibly difficult (developed by Syrians in mid-1st Century AD and brought to Italy by the artists). Carvings in precious stones refined in ancient Greece and highly prized by rich Romans but carvings of cameos in relief were only invented during Hellenistic period.
- Wall architecture of Romans developed was often combined with Greek post and lintel construction which therein became purely decorative with no supporting function – the columns and lintels were purely for an illusion (technique known as ‘pseudoperipteral’) – few joints could be seen and only non-figurative carving refined after perfection of the technique.
- Use of marble increased as cladding and for decorative purposes to give smooth clean surfaces to buildings made of brick or concrete – inside of the Colosseum was originally clad all in marble (it must have looked magnificent).
- Development of concrete in conjunction with the arch and vault were revolutionary to architecture – none were Roman inventions but the Romans realised the potential of arched construction and put to magnificent use in the aqueducts and by multiplying the number of arches for each level enabled the Romans to literally take architecture to new heights. Some arches were ‘dressed’ before erection – early prefabrication of buildings and systematized construction methods developed to enable this.
- Colosseum built with combination of concrete, travertine (type of limestone that hardened on exposure to air), tufa, brick faced concrete and metal clamps. Original concrete (‘opus caementicum’) was combination of aggregate (‘caementa’ – from which the word ‘cement’ derives) and mortar and then laid in layers – strength and durability was due to the mortar which was made of lime and a volcanic sand (originally found near Naples at Pozzuoli and originally called ‘pozzolano’). Originally the quick drying cement meant horizontal bands but a slow-drying mortar was developed which included another type of volcanic sand thought to be found near Rome (developed around time of Augustus).
- When new slow drying concrete combined with arches and vaults enabled Romans to revolutionize architecture and cover vaster spaces than ever before without additional internal support and enabled space to be molded into whatever shape was desired. Lighting could added through a circular opening (‘oculus’) and windows high up on walls of rooms radiating off a central space. Domes were developed from the arches and vaults and were made of concrete. This new type of concrete had further impact on size of the building of the Pantheon and other public buildings and enabled enormous buildings to be built with the aforesaid molding of space within. Mathematical measurements and geometrical problems further taken and solved to enable elaborate decoration in concrete of the domes.
- Development of portrait busts from custom of wax masks.
STYLES OR MOVEMENTS
- Sarcophagi became primary funerary art – 4th Century BC through Hellenistic and Roman eras to early Christian.
- More formal tendencies seen in Hellenistic period but also sensuous handling of marble developed – the latter giving the impression of elegance and self-awareness.
- Naturalism at the forefront of style during the Hellenistic period.
- Naturalistic style meant even weak or ageing bodies were portrayed – statues showed strength of soul in sympathetic portrayal.
- Some idealization still apparent during Hellenic times.
- Sleeping figures apparent in Hellenistic sculpture – first appearance of ‘allegory’ in European art and literally means ‘saying something else’ or has a ‘hidden meaning’. Greek Gods became personifications of death, wisdom, opportunity etc rather than deities and figures became allegorically significant – also differences in meaning shown in differences in handling of marble (for example the difference in how drapery is carved).
- Sculptures seen both as small and exquisite and also vast and grandiose which went against the Greeks ideal of the ‘golden mean’ (nothing in excess) – larger than life sculptures adapted for the viewpoints they would be seen from.
- Changes to how style of statues were sculpted included a generalized or idealized body but with a portrait head (known as a ‘ruler portrait’) – Hellenistic style/invention. Ruler portraits were a movement where the physical perfection of Archaic and Classical Greek athletes and gods were now attributed to the ruler of the state.
- Hellenistic architecture had own style different to Greek – rhythmic sense of structure and composition, deep under cutting to produce contrasts of light and dark and painterly effect, upper frieze on one temple smaller and low relief as if to be examined closely rather than seen from afar, conception of architecture as a mass in space i.e. some buildings nothing more than a façade where the interior no longer there but the building is for ‘show’. Architecture was grand and imposing and for me seems to be a mix of naturalistic forms in the sculpture combined with deep carving to produce those effects of light and shadow and also a sense of theatre about some structures.
- Roman art style hard to define due to the influences by other cultures and the styles of different periods that also influenced art forms such as mosaics – Greek palette of 5th and 4th Century BC influenced mosaics found at Vesuvius.
- All pictorial devises learned during Classical period used in mosaics but developed to give impression of 3 dimensions.
- Painted rooms in buildings give trompe l’oeil illusions – a style developed in this period to give depth and spacial illusions and creation of architectural framework – decorative schemes only appeared in 1st Century BC.
- Pompeiian Styles I, II, III and IV – variation versions of illusionist styles including illusion of recession developed by a perspective system (understanding of perspective in art would have been vital and something I personally am just really beginning to learn about).
- Earliest still lifes – style of this first done around the same time as Pompeiian styles.
- Style within houses was one that of a shrine as well as a home and different rooms were protected by different deities and so commanded different styles. Some rooms had paintings of scenery that brought the outside in in much the same way we may do now in modern times but the Hellenistic style that was now overlapping the Roman style took it a stage further as the paintings edged towards poetry in their style. Style is fresh and free in the handling of the medium.
- Portraiture in painting less sophisticated in style – seems more naive but nevertheless very striking and candid.
- By 79 AD every genre of painting being practised and patronized – from historical to landscape to portraiture with the aforesaid systems of perspective now developed stylistically to give the illusions so desired.
- Architecture gave the Romans the most visual form of their style as it showcases to this day their skills of organisation and urban design as well as the artistic skill of the sculptors involved.
- As Imperial Roman Empire developed style of houses changed with the influence of Etruscan and Hellenistic elements but also incorporating contrasts of light and shade to great effect. Ornamental gardens that merged with the landscape were of Roman invention and particularly seen in the large villas. Connective relationship between architecture and landscape evident in other designs such as for temples and public buildings.
- Acropolis at Pergamum shows combination of architecture which encompasses the hillside itself and molds the space with the axial symmetry and massive scale of the design as well as the boldness of it too – one of the first major works of Roman architecture.
- Use of arch prominent recognisable feature of Roman style – seems to signify strength, size and endurance.
- Style of spacial rooms due to combination of concrete and arches/vaults -recognisable as Roman style. Domes too became prominent feature as concrete enabled them to be built.
- Portrait sculptures which appear almost iconic style now – generic body used (similar to warehouse stock) and then elements such as armour added and a portrait style head.
- Roman style appears to be one of development of previous skills or adaptions to previous styles.
- Classicism practised simultaneously with other styles or was revived periodically to fit the subject matter and the levels of what was deemed appropriate for the time (‘decorum’). Decorum is one of the most recognisable of Roman concepts and could be seen on Roman sculptures and other forms of art.
- Decorum enabled marks of age to be recognised as no longer unsightly – portraiture is honest in its depiction of the subjects.
- Allegorical and historical figures, abstract ideas and solid facts – recognisable as Roman style due to recurrent nature in art.
- Portrait busts – style of portraiture developed from custom of wax portrait busts or masks of ancestors that were kept within the home and brought out and either worn at funerals or displayed at public sacrifices. Portrait heads made in Etruscan and Hellenistic times but developed by Romans in such a way as major style and contribution to visual arts – the heads developed into actual busts which were a Roman invention. In Roman portrait busts the style is very much of directness no matter how unflattering – it is as if you are seeing what the equivalent of a photograph is.
- Composite order – combination of Corinthian and Ionic elements invented by Augustan architects.
- Roman script, as realised by the Romans for its artistic possibilities, most influential and lasting contribution to the arts and one that I use even as I write.
- Column of Marcus Aurelius reflects harsh realism and portrays ‘coming renunciation of Greek and Hellenistic ideas’ (World History of Art, p. 207).
- Emphasis on likeness (‘verisimilitude’) with regards to portraiture and narrative clarity in relief carving as prime styles of sculptors started to change in 3rd Century AD from outward appearances to inner thoughts and feelings i.e. ‘from body to soul’ or ‘actions to reactions’ (World History of Art, p. 210) and this was seen particularly on sarcophagi in more spiritually dignified figures as opposed to pagan gods.
CRITICS, THINKERS OR HISTORIANS
- Hellenistic period gave 2 philosophies of life 1. Stoicism (held virtue to be its own reward) 2. Epicureanism (belief in virtue as the prerequisite of happiness) – marked change in attitude from the belief that man was a ‘political animal’ as defined by Aristotle to the beliefs of the inner life of a person.
- Aristotle – tutor to Alexander and dominant in scientific thought and method.
- History of Art theories first emerged during late 4th or early 3rd Century BC at Alexandria – first ones very crude.
- Writers of the period developed idea of ‘Classical moment’ when art or similar was at the height of achievement – termed as an ‘apogee’ which literally meant that.
- Plato believed in art to be ‘pale imitations of heavenly prototypes or Ideas’ (World History of Art p. 169) and that images were both morally harmful and false but Aristotle looked more towards the cause of the work of art – he believed the work depended on who made it, what it was made of and the purpose of the piece (both make total sense to me – it is hard to replicate a scene or a person exactly and therefore it is merely an interpretation or imitation but at the same time the reasons behind the piece being made effect is final result).
- Socrates believed artists should mainly concentrate on representing the good or the beautiful which in Greek were interchangeable terms particularly as the Greeks made no distinction between moral and physical beauty.
- Aristotle believed that even things that were not beautiful in life could be beautiful in art.
- Writers Pliny (died watching Vesuvius erupt) and Pausanias.
- Philostratus the Younger in 300 AD wrote of the deception of art.
- Architectural theorist Vitruvius (active in 46-32 BC) and later Pliny – both felt painting was dying but Petronius (author in Nero’s court) felt it was dead by the time of their writings. Vitruvius dedicated his architectural treatise to Augustus after the huge development of Rome from mud and brick to a city of marble and new buildings.
- Livy – history of Roman republic – remarked on the craze for collecting Greek art with collectors arriving on the scene around 1st Century BC.
- Cicero and Seneca both excluded painting from the liberal arts as artists were thought to be ‘agents of extravagance’ (World History of Art, p. 185) as art became considered objects of luxury and status symbols. Cicero also objected to the funds spent on temples and instead preferred public money to be spent on structures such as aqueducts and harbours and this belief went against former views that no building was of greater community service than that of a temple (many cultures have the same view in modern times that the place of worship is the most important part of their community).
- Writer Lucian (C. AD 120-200) regarded sculptors as workmen.
- Plutarch (moralist and biographer) (C. AD 46-120) felt that just because a work is beautiful it didn’t mean that the artist was.
- Plotinus – last great philosopher of the ancient world – Greek speaking but native to Upper Egypt and studied under same teacher as Christian theologian Origen.
INSIDE AND OUTSIDE INFLUENCES
- Oriental, Egyptian and Etruscan influences as seen on some sarcophagi – Greek civilisation at time of Alexander sarcophagi (310 BC) went as far as Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Iran and Bactria and into India subcontinent.
- Change in beliefs about the hereafter that were very different to those of the Greeks.
- Nearly all major achievements in science and mathematics of the ancient world date from Hellenistic period.
- Hellenistic world influenced the Romans although some sculptures were softer in appearance and less idealized.
- Art affected by political propaganda and some works done for this purpose.
- Different cultures seen in Hellenistic and Roman art.
- Eastern Mediterranean influence of artists seen in wall paintings and mosaics of Hellenistic period
- Cults of Dionysus, fertility god, introduced from West Asia to Greece and then to Italy.
- Persia, Greece/Hellenic world, Assyria and Egypt
- Hellenistic and Etruscan elements influenced the building of new type of domestic architecture of the Imperial Roman Empire -planning down with regard for axial symmetry and the molding of space combined with the illusionist paintings.
- Roman temples blended Etruscan and Greek elements – often architecture of Roman period combines all three styles of Greek architectural orders (Colosseum demonstrates this perfectly with the Doric being the heaviest and strongest at the base and the Corinthian being the lightest and most decorative at the top).
- Hellenic influence continued into Imperial Roman era with many Greek or Hellenistic statues being copied or collected – many Greek sculptures are only known through their Roman copies – some copies done with the use of pointing apparatus.
- Poetry may have influenced some sculptures e.g. Laocoon (World History of Art, p. 196).
- Hellenic influences resulted in full length portrait statues with bodies copied from a Greek version and done almost as warehouse stock items which then enabled a new portrait head to be added (other elements such as armour) – what was once an idealized Greek athlete could be transformed into an emperor.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS FOR OWN REFERENCE:
diadochi – successors to Alexander the Great who became absolute monarchs.
apogee – height of achievement of something, climax or culmination
tessarae – tiny cubes of graded colour stone
emblemata – small mosaic pictures
Building the Ancient City: Athens and Rome. [TV documentary] BBC, BBC2. 8 pm 27 August 2015
Historium, 2006-2013. Historium. Online. Available at: http://historum.com/ancient-history/4266-roman-republic-vs-roman-empire.html :Accessed August and September 2015.
Honour, Huge and Fleming, John.1984. A World History of Art. Revised seventh edition. London, UK. Laurence King Publishing.
Harbison, Robert. 2009. Travels in the History of Architecture. London, UK. Reaktion Books Ltd
Ramage, Nancy H. and Ramage, Andrew. 2008. The British Museum Concise Introduction Ancient Rome. London, UK. The British Museum Press
The Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore. 2008. The Art of Ancient Greece. Phillip Wilson Publishers